Sharia – Coming to a town near you?

sharia“Sharia” is a buzzword seen on many social media and news sites these days. What is it? Is Sharia really as bad as people claim and will it come to America? (Tweet That!) Some are claiming it is a torturous and archaic way of keeping the rule of law. Yet others claim that Sharia law is just a set of guidelines upon which actual laws can be based, and as with any law, there is no simple black and white interpretation.

In its simplest definition, Sharia refers to traditional Islamic law. It is based on four governing sources, with the Quran at its base. Muslims believe that the Quran has existed for all time and was revealed to the prophet Mohammed by the Archangel Gabriel in the Arabic language. It is the foundation of the Muslim faith and at the base of the Sharia.

The Sunna is the layer directly above the Quran and is basically the actions and sayings of the Muslim prophet Mohammad. The Sunna is found within a collection of writings known as the Hadith and were written by those close to Mohammad. If answers to an issue cannot be gleaned directly from the Quran then the Hadith should be searched for a resolution. The two main sects of Islam (Sunni and Shia) disagree considerably about which Hadiths are authentic. Each sect has sources they view as trustworthy and those they hold as false, and therefore have differing Sharia systems.

In addition to the Quran and Sunna, the ijam is a third accepted source for the Muslim rule of law. The ijma is the consensus of the Muslim jurists on a particular legal issue. Mohammad himself said, “My followers will never agree upon an error or what is wrong.” If an issue cannot be resolved by the first two sources, then the ijam is to be used.

The Qiyas makes up the fourth critical part of the Sharia. When a legal ruling cannot be found within the first three, then Islamic jurists can employ analogy, reasoning, and legal precedent to arrive at new case law. This is mainly employed by the Sunni followers, but the Shia use a similar form of reasoning.

The specific example of theft can be followed through these various levels. The Quran 5:8 says, “As to the thief, Male or female, cut off his or her hands: a punishment by way of example, from Allah, for their crime: and Allah is Exalted in power.” We also see this example in the life of Mohammad in the Hadith: Bukhari 81:780, “The Prophet said, ‘The hand should be cut off for stealing something that is worth a quarter of a Dinar or more.’” There is also consensus among many schools of thought in Islam about the removing of the hand for theft. The Hanbali school of the Sunnis adds further requirements for this punishment: The property must be of value. It must be in a stored place like a cupboard. It needs two witnesses or two confessions by an individual and the person whom the item was taken must ask for it back.

ebb22702b870db4089387e54def1d560A quick image-search on the term Sharia will return highly negative images, but is Sharia really that bad? You’ll see people holding signs saying, “Democracy is Falling … Sharia is returning.” And “Sharia will dominate the world.” You’ll also see images of people getting their hands cut off, women being buried up to their chest and being stoned, people being beat bloody with whips and individuals having their heads chopped from their bodies.

There are a number of countries that have classical Sharia as their legal system with punishments as listed above— Afghanistan, Iran, Pakistan, Egypt, Mauritania, Sudan, Iraq, the Maldives, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, and certain regions in Malaysia, Indonesia, Nigeria, and the United Arab Emirates. There are many countries that employ a mixed system, where Sharia covers family law, but secular courts handle criminal law.

Homosexuality-Illegal-mapThere are several countries where homosexual behavior can lead to the death penalty (Tweet That!) and prison time. Newsweek reports that about 100 people each year are beheaded in Saudi Arabia for various crimes. As mentioned above, individuals can have their hands and feet amputated for the crime of theft. These examples are harsh, but in normal society they do not happen as often as depicted on the web and in many cases the Sharia does leave room for repentance. To be fair, most often the atrocities we see on news cycles and in our Facebook feeds are performed by extremist groups, but there is still provision for them in many Sharia run governments.

There has been much discussion about Sharia coming to America. There are currently a dozen states that have laws banning Sharia (Tweet That!). The remaining states are split, half of which have rejected legislation that would ban Sharia and half that have no legislation at all. Sharia courts might one day make it to America, but in all truth, Sharia law exists now in the hearts of most Muslims. For the Muslim, submitting to the Sharia is a part of following Allah.

PF_15.04.02_ProjectionsOverview_populationChange_310pxIslam is the fastest growing religion and is growing twice as fast as the general population. It is projected to outnumber Christianity by 2070. If we take a look at the example of the UK we see that the number of registered mosques in 1960 were about seven. The latest number show about 1,500 mosques, and Islam is now the second largest belief system in that nation. It’s difficult to get an exact number, but there are currently about 80 Sharia courts in the UK. These courts really have no power except in moderation of personal disputes, and only when the parties agree to this arbitration, but they do rule on family and religious issues.

As a Christian this info might be a bit disheartening, but it should not be unexpected. 2 Thes. 2, when speaking of the Second Coming says, “Let no one in any way deceive you, for it will not come unless the apostasy comes first.” Jesus also said that, “because of iniquity, the love of many would grow cold.” These facts should drive and compel you. Not in anger or fear, but in love as you share your faith with the Muslim.

I’ve felt driven over the past few months to research and write about the topic of Christianity, Islam and Judaism. My motivation is not one of anger but to inform. The Bible speaks of a time of testing that the entire world must face. The prophecies of this great book cannot be changed, but that should not prevent us from demonstrating the love of Christ. You can disagree with others about issues of faith and still care deeply for them, show love to them and work alongside them. Always treat others with kindness and respect. Period. As a Christian it is our job to share the truth of the Gospel with the Muslim.

21 Day Bible Reading Challenge

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Every year about this time I challenge those in my circle of friends to 21 days of Bible reading.  I don’t always pick the same chapters, but pray about what meaningful scriptures I’d like to add to the list. I want to encourage you to take the challenge. Read God’s Word. See if it changes your life.

  • Day 1 Genesis 1 – The beginning of all things.
  • Day 2 Daniel 3 – A story about God’s protection in tough times.
  • Day 3 Psalms 149 – A little Praise to God.
  • Day 4 Hebrews 11 – The faith chapter.
  • Day 5 Romans 11 – God still has plans for Israel.
  • Day 6 Luke 21 – A little about the end of times.
  • Day 7 Matthew 5 – Sermon on the mount pt #1.
  • Day 8 Matthew 6 – Sermon on the mount pt #2.
  • Day 9 Matthew 7 – Sermon on the mount pt #3.
  • Day 10 John 21 – Some of Jesus’ last concerns.
  • Day 11 Acts 2 – A bit about Pentecost
  • Day 12 1 Corinthians 12 – A bit about spiritual gifts.
  • Day 13 1 Corinthians 13 – The love chapter.
  • Day 14 1 Corinthians 14 – Instructions about spiritual gifts.
  • Day 15 Romans 6 – Being dead to sin.
  • Day 16 Zechariah 14 – God fights for Israel.
  • Day 17 Proverbs 11 – Contrast between upright and wicked.
  • Day 18 Daniel 7 – A bit of prophecy about the last days.
  • Day 19 Isaiah 53 – Prophecy made about Jesus.
  • Day 20 Galatians 5 – Walking in the spirit.
  • Day 21 Revelation 22 – The endings of all things.

What’s Love got to do with it?

The word 'Leadereship' highlighted in green with felt tip pen

Leadership is one of those topics that has been hashed and rehashed millions of times. There are a number of leadership styles ranging from the autocratic lone-ranger, to the democratic let’s take a vote, to the laissez-faire stand back and watch leaders. Beyond styles there are also a number of models that have  changed over the years. Leadership is a very complex topic with no “one” right way. Each model and style has strengths and weakness and we often work most effectively in the model and style that fits our personality. I do however want to mention one aspect that is often missing from the business model of leadership–and that’s love.

Now maybe you’re like Tina Turner and ask, “What’s love got to do with it?” When it comes to the business world, making money is what’s important. It’s the shareholder that matters. It’s getting the job done on time that’s important and I would say you’re absolutely right, but what’s the best means to that end. If we’re going to prosper and win, then why not do it in the biggest possible way. I would like to suggest to you that it’s possible to be financially profitable while enhancing the lives of others (Tweet That!) by using the vehicle of love. Below I’d like to list three benefits, beyond the mighty dollar, when we mix in a little of the underestimated emotion.

Firstly, I’d like to say that genuinely caring for those we lead is a great motivator (Tweet That!). One of the main roles of a leader is to provide proper motivation to those they are leading. I think caring for your team can be one of the greatest motivators that exist. Motivation is different for everyone. Some like a challenge, some like opportunity to move up, and then there’s always money.  But caring is free and it’s benefits go beyond any project or task.

We’ve all heard the quote, “They won’t care how much you know until they know how much you care.”  The same is true for influence. As an employee I would go out of my way for a leader that I know cares for me and happily do what they ask. I would still obey an callous leader, but that obedience would come out of a respect for the role and not the person.  When working under a leader who could care less, it’s easy to do just what’s required. The former provides a greater framework for individual productivity.

Thirdly, creating a team atmosphere of caring among group members increases efficiency within the team. When people are happy their output is greater. If the individual will benefit from a caring attitude, then we can expect a greater synergy among the group. Can you imagine a team that is committed to one another? I’ve always believed that by helping others achieve their goals I would ultimately have my own goals fulfilled.

In the end business is business and it’s the bottom line is what drives it. I implore you to aim for a greater bottom line and mix in a little love.

Encryption – Do you need to secure your files?

Security, anonymity​ and privacy are topics you hear a lot about these days. When the news is filled with how terrorists used encryption to mask their evil activities one might ask do we really need it? I would say we absolutely do. It would be easy to make a case for government agencies, banks and even medical services to have access to this type of technology, but I’d even say we as individuals need to use it.​ The Bureau of ​Justice Stastics reported that in 2014​ there were 17.6 million US residents that experienced identity theft.​ On average it costs victims about $1,500 in lost finances and that’s not counting lost hours and stress caused by cleaning up the mess. Most of your personal files don’t need encrypted but you should protect your sensitive data. Things like financial, medical, website passwords, etc should be secure.​​

I’ve spent some time learning the ins and outs of encryption. There’s still much I don’t know, but I do feel I have a good grip on how many of these technologies work.​ I want to use the rest of this article to explain a little about encryption an application I’ve created called Xcipher and how it works.

The two main types of encryption are public and private key. Public key is what we often use when we connect to a secure website. It uses very large prime numbers to create a key that is used to encrypt data in a file. Primes are significant because they take a very long time to factor.​ For example​​ I can take two large prime numbers and multiply them together in seconds, but if I take the result and try to find the two numbers that created it, that would take a long time and for very large primes it could take thousands of years to crack.

Xcipher uses private key encryption which doesn’t use prime numbers at all. Private key encryption is similar to writing your password or padlock combination on a sheet of paper and storing it away till later. The file cannot be unencrypted without the password and it’s kept secret from others.

The Xcipher application will read a byte from the input file create an encrypted byte based upon a character in the password, and then write that byte to the output file….and continue through the entire file.

A byte is 8 bits, and the first read of the file would contain data like this: {01101001 010010101 10100001}.​​ ​After the data is read​ a “mask” of the same length (8 bits) must be created. This mask is basically a random number from 0 – 255. It is used to flip the bits using an Xor operator. Java has a function that returns a random number.  Something really helpful about this function and what makes this application possible is the fact that you can seed the random function with a starting point and it will then return a sequence of numbers that are always the same. If I create a million random numbers the second run with the same seed will create the exact same million numbers.

Let’s say our password is “apple”. It has already read in byte: 01101001 and the first character of the password is a lower case ‘a’. If you use its integer value you get the number 97. We then generate 97 random numbers, toss them to the side, and then use the 98th, which will be an integer between 0 and 255, and that will be our mask. We throw the first numbers away to add complexity to the algorithm making it near impossible to calculate the mask that is returned. If you dont’ have the password that is used to create the mask and the starting point (seed) for the random number you cannot determine the mask. Without it you cannot recreate the original byte.

There are 256 possible number between 0 – 255, and that is important because that is also the largest number possible with a byte. The binary number 11111111 is equal to the decimal number 255. So the random number that is chosen is always the size of one byte….our mask is a random number the size of a byte.

Now lets say the 98th number was 133 which is the binary number 10000101. So now we have:
01101001 – original byte
10000101 – mask 
The Exclusive Or (know as an Xor operator) will compare the two bytes bit for bit.  You remember those truth tables you learned in college, well here’s the one for Xor:

  • 1 Xor 1 = 0
  • 1 Xor 0 = 1
  • 0 Xor 1 = 1
  • 0 Xor 0 = 0.

Let’s do the calculation:
01101001 – original byte
10000101 – mask
____________________________XOR
11101100 – encrypted byte

Xcipher screen shot:

enc2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

So how does the decryption work? Well, when you run the encrypted file back through the same program, it will read in the encrypted byte, and when Xor’d with the same mask, it will produce the original byte. So the Xor acts like a switch that will flip the bits back to the original, and java will produce the exact random numbers each time.

Just because bad people use a good technology doesn’t make that technology bad. Encryption is a powerful tool that makes our online communication safe and secure and we should not fear it. If you’re interested in the application just message me and I’ll give you a copy.

Tough Problems Keep you Sharp

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A few years ago I started looking at the unsolved conjecture about twin primes and set out to find a solution. A Greek mathematician named Euclid proved over 2,300 years ago that there were infinitely many prime numbers–numbers that are only divisible by one and themselves (2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19, …), but it has never been proved that there are infinitely many twin primes.  Twin primes are primes that are only two digits apart like: (3, 5),  (11, 13), (18409199, 18409201).

There have been thousands of individuals over  several thousands of years that are far more intelligent than I who have never found a solution, so why try? I won’t delve too much further into the maths involved or the work I’ve done on this problem, but I did want to mention three benefits of trying to tackle a problem of this magnitude.

The first benefit of a hard problem is pushing your limits. When you first pick up a problem like this you quickly learn your limits and come to the realization that you know very little. Knowing your limits is a good thing, because it’s difficult to push past them if you do not understand where they are. As you begin to investigate your problem you’ll probe the knowledge of other and increase your own understanding. Maybe in the end you’ll become an expert in the subject, but you’ll definitely be more knowledgeable.

A second benefit of a tough problem is that it gives courage. When you stand before the impossible something changes in you. You develop an attitude that says, “I’m going to try anyway.” Many people give up too quickly. They say it’s too hard, or it can’t be done, when they should have said, I just don’t want to put fourth the effort. It reminds me of the biblical story of David and Goliath where the little shepherd boy faced an impossible task. The mightiest warriors in Israel failed, but this 16 year old won the day.

The third benefit is that it keeps you sharp.  A few weeks ago I was cutting weeds with a machete and handed it to my father for just a second. As he put it down to his side the blade barely touched the finger of his other hand and drew a line of blood. It was sharp and it did it’s job easily and efficiently. I think it’s the tough problems that help keep us sharp.  They keep us focused on the impossible solution always trying something new and honing current knowledge.

Maybe math is not your thing, but that’s OK.  I challenge you to find a hard problem, maybe even one deemed impossible, and set out to find the answer. You might have a long struggle ahead of you, but you’ll grow. And maybe, you’ll find a solution that nobody’s thought of.

5 Tips for a 25 Year Marriage

sadfaSome of the best marriage advice I received as a young man came from my pastor. He said if you want a marriage that lasts, then find someone who’s been married a long time and watch them. At the time the “Old People” in my life seemed really strange and I thought they’d have no clue how to face the current issues of my day, but I was wrong. These older couples may not have been experts in my culture or changing technology, but they did understand relationships and how to strengthen them. Today is my 25th anniversary, and now that I’m walking on the other side of the fence I’d like to offer a few tips of my own. Below are Five tips for a twenty five year marriage.

The first tip is to never say the “D” word. Divorce–doesn’t even sound good does it.  Debbie and I decided very early in our marriage that we would never say the word divorce.  No matter how mad we got or how tired we were we would not mention that word in an argument.  It was difficult at times and the word often popped into our minds, but it was never spoken.

It’s too easy to say things you don’t mean when you’re angry, and when you begin to throw the “D” word around you begin to think about it.  You begin to believe it.  Before long it seems like the only solution to your problem.  Instead of looking for reasons to stop being together, you should look for reasons to build your marriage.

The next tip is: don’t go to bed mad at each other.  I would be lying if I said I never went to bed mad at my wife, but I can say we made it a priority to resolve our issues before the day ended.  There are times when couples need a little distance, and some time to work through hard feelings, but when its all said and done we need to learn to set our emotions aside and communicate openly and honestly.

We still have fights after 25 years of marriage, but they look a lot different than when we were first married.  Arguments these days often last about 2 minutes.  I say what’s bothering me, she says what’s bothering her and we drop it.  I’ve learned to hear what she’s upset about and try to make changes and she does the same.  We don’t have very many “BIG” fights any more.

Always make sure to kiss each other goodbye.  You never know when your last kiss will be, and we’re not guaranteed of tomorrow.  And I’ll also add, on occasion throw in the 10 second kiss.  I won’t say much more….just try it.

Tell your spouse, “I love you” everyday.  One of the most basic needs of every human is to be loved, and it’s important you tell your spouse that you love them.  Try and think of the kind words you use as building blocks to your marriage.  The more nice words you use, the stronger your marriage will be, and probably the nicest thing you can say is, “I Love You.”

There are certain roles only a spouse can fill, and don’t allow others to fill them.  When we think if intimacy often times sex comes to mind, and that’s part of it, but only a small part.  Sex is one of those things that only your spouse fulfills.  That may seem obvious, but infidelity happens, so maybe it’s not as obvious as you would think.

Beyond sexual intimacy there are places in the heart that should only belong to a spouse.  I consider my wife as my best friend.  She listens to me when I talk.  She laughs at my jokes.  She makes corny comments like, “You’re sexy and I know it,” and just hearing her say it makes me smile.  If I were ever to allow another woman that place in my heart it would be wrong.  That place belongs only to her.

If you were to ask a hundred people what makes a marriage last you’d probably get 100 different answers, but these are a few of my top tips.  I’ll leave you with one final thought.  A marraige relationship is never complete.  You’re always pruning it, watering it, and working on it.

A Good Pair of Shoes

loveI’ve felt for the longest time that we believers make our jobs harder than they really are—spiritually speaking. We often focus on processes, styles, and even the details of our doctrine causing us to overlook the essentials of our spiritual walk. Don’t get me wrong; I think these things are important to our journey, but misaligned spiritual priorities can leave us feeling empty, frustrated, and even judgmental of others. With the wrong focus we become like the Pharisees, and that’s not fun, especially for those around us.

In the gospel of Matthew chapter 22 Jesus says, “You shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, and with all your soul, and with all your mind. This is the great and foremost commandment. The second is like it, You shall love your neighbor as yourself. On these two commandments depend the whole Law and the Prophets.

Once a person takes the first step of believing that God is real, the idea of loving him comes naturally. It’s an amazing experience when a one comes to the point of understanding all that He is and all that He’s done for us. How can you not love someone who gave their life for you?

The second commandment, to love people, seems to be a bit more difficult. People aren’t perfect. They sometimes get in our way and ruin our plans. They have ideas that don’t line up with our own. They cut in line at Wal-Mart and drive slowly in front of us on the highway. They say bad things about us on Facebook and sometimes even sit in our pew at church. How dare they?

It’s not by chance that the Apostle Paul placed the “Love Chapter” in the midst of verses that talk about our talents and spiritual gifting. He basically tells us that we may do great things, make big sacrifices, or even perform astounding miracles, but if we don’t have love then it’s meaningless.

I once saw a photo of a pair of shoes, and on the top of one was written the phrase, “Love God.”  The other said, “Love People.”  If we all were to write these two statements on the tops of our shoes, and remembered everywhere we stepped to love God and to love people, then just think of how different our world would be.

How Safe is Your Identity?

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One scary moment of my life was answering a call from my credit card account manager who asked, “Mr. Lucas, did you recently purchase a dozen roses and four bottles of wine in New Jersey?”  Well, considering I’ve not been to Jersey, I had never used that card, and I don’t drink wine, my answer was, “No!”  I began immediately thinking about how bad this could be. Would I have to cancel my cards? Would I spend hours on the phone trying to clean this up? Luckily that’s all the further that theft went. I didn’t have to pay for the charges, and none of my other accounts had been compromised.

It is becoming increasingly harder to stay safe. In a world that’s wired to the internet and a culture dependent on a variety of electronic gadgets, identity theft is thriving. “You can’t prevent identity theft! No one can!” says financial expert Dave Ramsey. Even Todd Davis, the CEO of a large identity protection company, who shared his social security number publicly had his identity stolen 12 times, says the Phoenix News Times. While this may be a bit unsettling, understand that you can make it extremely difficult for the prowling identity thief. Don’t become the feeble gazelle faltering at the rear of the heard. When it comes to identity theft, there are three areas to consider.

Minimize the risk–There are a number of ways we can lower the risk of attack, and they all limit access to your personal data.

Get a shredder and properly dispose of old documents that have sensitive data; don’t just throw them in the trash. Anyone can drive around in the early morning hours and pilfer through your garbage. Don’t give out personal information to someone who calls you. If you need to give the info, then hang up and call their publicly listed number. Never trust that the person on the end of the line is who they say they are. And finally and most importantly, be cautious of what you put on the internet. From a person’s Facebook account or website it’s often easy gather all kinds of personal information. Even something as simple as, “Here’s my cat named fluffy!” Many people use their pet’s names as passwords.

Monitor your accounts. –Another big way to keep yourself safe is to monitor your existing accounts. If you can catch illegal activity when if first happens you can limit the damage.

Watch your monthly reports. Keep your receipts and match them with the report item for item, and if something appears that you didn’t buy then call. You can also check your annual reports for free at https://www.annualcreditreport.com. You can get reports for all three (Trans Union, Equifax, Experian) of the reporting agencies from them. Another simple step to take is reduce the number of accounts you have. It’s easy to miss unwanted activity if you have 10-15 different accounts to watch.

Maximize your protection. –One final way to reduce the time and money spent on costly clean-up is to purchase identity theft insurance.

You must change your mindset. No person or company can prevent an identity theft from occurring, but a good company can help manage the aftereffects, and repay stolen money. You insure the things that are valuable to you, your homes, and your cars, so why not insure your identity?  You can find a good identity policy for around $6.75 a month. Dave Ramsey recommends the Zander Insurance Group as a good provider of identity theft protection.

A picture may be worth more than a thousand words

a_picture_is_worth_1000_words_by_refrigeratorbingo-d465awbYou’ve probably heard the phrase a picture is worth a thousand words.  Well, when it comes to your cell phone photos it might be more.  As most of you know, when you take a photo with a digital camera it will save the data from the image into a image file on the camera, and this file can then be copied to your computer or uploaded directly to a number of popular social media sites.  An image is made up of thousands or millions of little dots called pixels and the data file stores the location and color of each dot, but what you may not know is that these image files can contain a lot more information.

Some of the data embedded into this file might be things like: type of phone, lens used, exposure used, colors used, and even the GPS location where the image was taken, and with the right tools anyone in the world can view this information if it’s stored online.

Earlier today I took a picture with my phone, then uploaded it to a website that can extract this information to see what it would show.  The image below shows some of this data.

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So far, it’s not too bad, and many of the images you find online and on facebook will show no more info than this.  However, if an image is taken on a phone where geo-tracking is turned on, then the image file will contain the exact GPS coordinates, and this website will show those coordinates in google maps.  When I scroll down to the bottom of the page this is what I see.

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Wow, now that is revealing.  With google maps,  you can zoom down to the exact house where the image wast taken.  I have edited the image above so that you won’t know my exact location, but the point is, you could unknowingly be putting unwanted info about yourself on the internet.

There is a bit of good news though.  It is possible to turn off the geo-tracking on you camera.  It may be different for different cameras, but on an android you need to start the camera, then open the settings, then uncheck the icon that looks like an upside down tear drop.

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Are You Spiritually Bankrupt

hagmann121512I’ve often wondered why I’ve met some of the meanest and some of the nicest people in a Church.  I’ve decided it’s because some of them are rich while others are spiritually bankrupt.

There are few things in life that bring you the joy of loving others.  When you give of your self, sacrifice, show kindness, politeness, use a little self-control, and a good portion of gentleness, then you are spiritually rich (Gal 5:22-25).

A life that is focused solely on self…in the end is lonely, depressing, and and only leaves you longing for more.  I like how 1 Corinthians says it below–If you don’t have love, you are spiritually bankrupt.

1 Cor. 13:1-7 If I speak with human eloquence and angelic ecstasy but don’t love, I’m nothing but the creaking of a rusty gate.

If I speak God’s Word with power, revealing all his mysteries and making everything plain as day, and if I have faith that says to a mountain, “Jump,” and it jumps, but I don’t love, I’m nothing.

If I give everything I own to the poor and even go to the stake to be burned as a martyr, but I don’t love, I’ve gotten nowhere. So, no matter what I say, what I believe, and what I do, I’m bankrupt without love.